The Psychology of Communication
On the limitations of the communication process and the central role of interpretation
Communication is about using symbols, and in people’s case, using language to convey meanings and ideas between people, and in responding to other people. Human communication is characterized by the intention and expectation of answers, and communication in people can be verbal if it is mediated by language, or nonverbal when language is not involved. Communication can also be direct when a particular pattern of behavior causes a certain type of reaction, or subtle and indirect, when the behavior is unpredictable or ambiguous and not even fully understood. For example, communication is divided into several separate categories, such as:
- Direct and indirect communication
- Verbal and non-verbal communication
Any direct communication can be verbal or non-verbal, just as indirect communication can be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication can be direct or indirect, nonverbal communication can also be direct or indirect. So let’s say that people have four types of communicative patterns: verbal and direct, verbal and indirect, nonverbal and direct, nonverbal and indirect. Examples of verbal and direct words are simple or unambiguous statements without hidden or incomprehensible messages. They are a verbal expression of emotions and ideas when they arise. Just like when you are happy and say you are happy, you use the direct verbal communication method to express your feelings. Indirect methods of verbal communication use subtle expressions such as ridicule, sarcasm, hints, etc. that may have ambiguous meaning and may not reflect expressions of emotions or ideas “as they arise.” So, if you are sad and you do not talk about it, but indirectly talk about it, then you use indirect methods to convey your state of mind. Nonverbal communication involves the use of signals, facial expressions or body expressions, body language, eye or hand movements, etc. to express ideas. It can be very direct, because hitting someone is non-verbal, but direct, because it expresses anger, just as crying symbolizes sadness.
Communication is the basis of interaction between people and others, and we can all communicate through touch or sound, gaze or symbol, words or phrases, as well as doing nothing or speaking at all. The body is an important interface in communication, and I discussed it in body psychology, where body language plays an important role in communication. We communicate with our partners through intimate body language, and sexual interaction is a very important means of communication in both humans and animals. The psychology of communication includes various elements or stages of human communication, such as:
- Absorbing external information by listening or reading, etc.,
- Interpretation of the incentives received, and
- Reaction to information obtained as a result of behavior.
The three stages of the communication process, such as gathering or receiving information, interpreting or extracting value from information, and responding to or responding to information, make it easier to:
- The absorption or assimilation of information occurs through the senses, and we simply absorb the sounds and colors spoken by the words and all the external data provided to us. Acquisition is an objective process
- Interpretation or analysis of information – includes the use of brain mechanisms and analysis of external stimuli, as well as details such as subtle verbal and nonverbal expressions and signals, so interpretation is a subjective process.
- Reaction or reaction to stimuli – uses physical ways of communication, such as speech, language or expression through the movements of the face and body. The answers are the result of a subjective and objective process. This is because we all have a number of predictable reactions to certain stimuli that are objective, but depending on how we subjectively interpret the situation, reactions may vary to some extent. The answers can be imitative: you laugh when you see someone smiling, or vice versa, such as when someone tries to look at you and turn away.
This response, or reaction from a person, can be an incentive for a different set of responses, or the stimulus can be a completely separate event or situation.
The modes of communication are also of interest because people communicate through writing and conversation, as well as through letters, messages, phone calls, personal conversation, gaze and physical contact, through communication, sex and, more broadly, through seminars. conferences, news, newspapers, press releases, books, brochures and campaigns or propaganda. New methods of communication using information technology include chats and chat rooms, the Internet and e-mail, text messages, forums, blogging and networking. Technology has opened up new opportunities for communication, and now the world depends entirely on how far and how fast people can communicate.
Communication is at the heart of our modern life, but it is a difficult and complex process, and there remains a gap between transferable ideas and perceived ideas. This communication gap, as is widely known, is filled only by properly taking into account all the verbal, non-verbal, indirect and direct elements of the communication process. So, in a personal or business meeting, the process of communication involves not only verbal presentation of people’s ideas, but also nonverbal facial expressions and physical expressions.
The purpose of communication is almost always motivated or intentional, as we naturally expect a response from the people we communicate with. In fact, any communication is based on anticipating the reaction of others, so communication usually has direction or purpose. However, lack of communication can cause problems in the process, and the purpose of communication may remain unsatisfied if the ideas expressed are too vague or indirect. Blur increases when the channels of communication between two or more people are distal or disstual, not proximal.
Remote communication methods such as e-mail and the Internet, phone calls, etc. pose new challenges in learning communication, because we do not see the person with whom we communicate, we have problems with the perception of the stimuli with which we communicate. meeting “interpret.”